About to have a problem. How should we approach trials in our life? Trials are not to be seen as tribulations but testings. A test is given to see if a student can pass, not pass out. James gave sound advice on how to score high on every test. It is important to note that James did not say that a believer should be joyous for the trials but in the trials. When surrounded by these trials, one should respond with joy. Most people count it all joy when they escape trials.
James said to count it all joy in the midst of trials. Our attitude toward trials James —4. James called on us to actually welcome trials and difficulties. These are to produce unmixed joy, not because the trials themselves are pleasurable, but because we look beyond the immediate experience to foresee the result.
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God permits such experiences as a test intended to show the validity, not weakness of our faith. Such trials call for perseverance, which in turn produces maturity and spiritual wholeness. If we are able to look beyond the present and see the product God intends to produce through our suffering, we will experience joy.
This perspective is impossible for most men. But those who have confidence in God value character above pleasure, and eternity above the present moment. Trials are likely to panic us. James reminded us that ours is a giving God, and one of His gifts is wisdom. James promised that God will show the person who asks the way to go.
The wavering individual, who hesitates to respond obediently, will be unable to receive what the Lord is eager to give. Trials can be faced with joy because, infused with faith, perseverance results, and if perseverance goes full-term it will develop a thoroughly mature Christian who lacks nothing. He will indeed be all God wants him to be. Where does one turn for help to understand this paradox? To those who lack wisdom, this valuable resource is available for the asking.
James assumed his readers would feel the need for wisdom, not just knowledge.
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Lynne Markus , for their encouragement and advice. This section is organized as follows. After a general overview of qualitative research, philosophical perspectives which can inform qualitative research are discussed. This is followed by sections on qualitative research methods, qualitative research techniques, and modes of analyzing and interpreting qualitative data. This is then followed by a number of sub-sections that relate to qualitative research in general, i. The goal is to provide the IS community with useful information on qualitative research in IS subject to copyright considerations with as much material as possible provided -- through links -- by the original authors themselves.
Please send suggestions for improvement to the Section Editor at: m. Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena. Examples of quantitative methods now well accepted in the social sciences include survey methods , laboratory experiments, formal methods e. Qualitative research methods were developed in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomena.
Examples of qualitative methods are action research, case study research and ethnography. The motivation for doing qualitative research, as opposed to quantitative research, comes from the observation that, if there is one thing which distinguishes humans from the natural world, it is our ability to talk!
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Qualitative research methods are designed to help researchers understand people and the social and cultural contexts within which they live. Kaplan and Maxwell argue that the goal of understanding a phenomenon from the point of view of the participants and its particular social and institutional context is largely lost when textual data are quantified.
Although most researchers do either quantitative or qualitative research work, some researchers have suggested combining one or more research methods in the one study called triangulation. Good discussions of triangulation can be found in Ragin , Gable , Kaplan and Duchon and Lee An empirical example of the use of triangulation is Markus' paper on electronic mail. Research methods have variously been classified as objective versus subjective Burrell and Morgan, , as being concerned with the discovery of general laws nomothetic versus being concerned with the uniqueness of each particular situation idiographic , as aimed at prediction and control versus aimed at explanation and understanding, as taking an outsider etic versus taking an insider emic perspective, and so on.
Considerable controversy continues to surround the use of these terms, however, a discussion of these distinctions is beyond the scope of this section. For a fuller discussion see Luthans and Davis , and Morey and Luthans See also the section on philosophical perspectives below. For our purposes, the most pertinent philosophical assumptions are those which relate to the underlying epistemology which guides the research.
Epistemology refers to the assumptions about knowledge and how it can be obtained for a fuller discussion, see Hirschheim, Guba and Lincoln suggest four underlying "paradigms" for qualitative research: positivism, post-positivism, critical theory, and constructivism. Orlikowski and Baroudi , following Chua , suggest three categories, based on the underlying research epistemology: positivist, interpretive and critical. This three-fold classification is the one that is adopted here.
However it needs to be said that, while these three research epistemologies are philosophically distinct as ideal types , in the practice of social research these distinctions are not always so clear cut e. There is considerable disagreement as to whether these research "paradigms" or underlying epistemologies are necessarily opposed or can be accommodated within the one study. It should be clear from the above that the word 'qualitative' is not a synonym for 'interpretive' - qualitative research may or may not be interpretive, depending upon the underlying philosophical assumptions of the researcher.
Qualitative research can be positivist, interpretive, or critical see Figure 1. It follows from this that the choice of a specific qualitative research method such as the case study method is independent of the underlying philosophical position adopted. For example, case study research can be positivist Yin, , interpretive Walsham, , or critical, just as action research can be positivist Clark, , interpretive Elden and Chisholm, or critical Carr and Kemmis, These three philosophical perspectives are discussed below.
Positivists generally assume that reality is objectively given and can be described by measurable properties which are independent of the observer researcher and his or her instruments.
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Positivist studies generally attempt to test theory, in an attempt to increase the predictive understanding of phenomena. In line with this Orlikowski and Baroudi , p. Examples of a positivist approach to qualitative research include Yin's and Benbasat et al's work on case study research. Interpretive researchers start out with the assumption that access to reality given or socially constructed is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness and shared meanings.
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The philosophical base of interpretive research is hermeneutics and phenomenology Boland, Interpretive studies generally attempt to understand phenomena through the meanings that people assign to them and interpretive methods of research in IS are "aimed at producing an understanding of the context of the information system, and the process whereby the information system influences and is influenced by the context" Walsham , p.
Interpretive research does not predefine dependent and independent variables, but focuses on the full complexity of human sense making as the situation emerges Kaplan and Maxwell, Examples of an interpretive approach to qualitative research include Boland's and Walsham's work. Critical researchers assume that social reality is historically constituted and that it is produced and reproduced by people. This is followed by sections on qualitative research methods, qualitative research techniques, and modes of analyzing and interpreting qualitative data.
This is then followed by a number of sub-sections that relate to qualitative research in general, i.
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The goal is to provide the IS community with useful information on qualitative research in IS subject to copyright considerations with as much material as possible provided — through links — by the original authors themselves. If you wish to cite this work, the complete citation information is included below. Please send suggestions for improvement to the Section Editor at: m. Research methods can be classified in various ways, however one of the most common distinctions is between qualitative and quantitative research methods. Quantitative research methods were originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena.
Examples of quantitative methods now well accepted in the social sciences include survey methods, laboratory experiments, formal methods e. Qualitative research methods were developed in the social sciences to enable researchers to study social and cultural phenomena. Examples of qualitative methods are action research, case study research and ethnography.
The motivation for doing qualitative research, as opposed to quantitative research, comes from the observation that, if there is one thing which distinguishes humans from the natural world, it is our ability to talk!
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