The algorithm involves holding a bunch of uncooked spaghetti rods of different lengths and slamming down the bunch against a table. A human can sort the rods by length with O n time complexity. In contrast, the fastest computer algorithm for sorting a list of numbers is O n log n , which is worse. The computer is not able to take advantage of e. In other words, stuff deemed to be computations happening in the real world in human bodies is naturally massively parallel all happening at the same time and this is a huge advantage of humans over traditional computers which naturally process things one by one and incur cost to enable parallelism — parallelism which pales in comparison to the real world.
The above may be the biggest challenge to achieving Strong AI via electronic hardware if we refrain from speculating about using quantum computing for AI. The more I learn about human intelligence, the more I appreciate all the things it can do. Not sure when exactly. Sign in.
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Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic , understanding , self-awareness , learning , emotional knowledge , reasoning , planning , creativity , critical thinking , and problem solving. More generally, it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information , and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is most often studied in humans but has also been observed in both non-human animals and in plants.
Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence , which is commonly implemented in computer systems using programs and, sometimes, specialized hardware. In the Middle Ages , the word intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous. This term, however, was strongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism , including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the Active Intellect also known as the Active Intelligence.
This entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon , Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and David Hume , all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in place of " intellectus " or "intelligence" in their English philosophical works. The definition of intelligence is controversial. From " Mainstream Science on Intelligence " , an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers out of total invited to sign : .
A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.
Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria.
Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.
Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions. Besides those definitions, psychology and learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as the following:. In short, intelligence doesn't like to get trapped".
Louis L. Thurstone: The Nature of Intelligence: Chapter A Definition of Intelligence
Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. It is a cognitive process. It gives humans the cognitive abilities to learn , form concepts , understand , and reason , including the capacities to recognize patterns , comprehend ideas, plan , solve problems , and use language to communicate.
Intelligence enables humans to experience and think.
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Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species , and comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as numerical and verbal reasoning abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species e. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence.
Non-human animals particularly noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees , bonobos notably the language-using Kanzi and other great apes , dolphins , elephants and to some extent parrots , rats and ravens. Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals.
Vertebrates such as mammals , birds , reptiles and fish have shown a fairly high degree of intellect that varies according to each species. The same is true with arthropods. Evidence of a general factor of intelligence has been observed in non-human animals. The general factor of intelligence, or g factor , is a psychometric construct that summarizes the correlations observed between an individual's scores on a wide range of cognitive abilities.
First described in humans , the g factor has since been identified in a number of non-human species.
The nature of intelligence and the limits of AI
Cognitive ability and intelligence cannot be measured using the same, largely verbally dependent, scales developed for humans. Instead, intelligence is measured using a variety of interactive and observational tools focusing on innovation , habit reversal, social learning , and responses to novelty. It has been argued that plants should also be classified as intelligent based on their ability to sense and model external and internal environments and adjust their morphology , physiology and phenotype accordingly to ensure self-preservation and reproduction.
A counter argument is that intelligence is commonly understood to involve the creation and use of persistent memories as opposed to computation that does not involve learning. Psychological Science , 25 8 , — Matzke , D. Intelligence , 38 3 , — McGrew , K. CHC theory and the human cognitive abilities project: Standing on the shoulders of the giants of psychometric intelligence research. Intelligence , 37 1 , 1 — Perspectives on Psychological Science , 11 4 , — Nisbett , R. Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count.
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Oberauer , K. Working memory and intelligence — their correlation and their relation: Comment on Ackerman, Beier, and Boyle Pashler , H. Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science , 9 3 , — Raven , J. Psychometrics, cognitive ability, and occupational performance. Review of Psychology , 7 1—2 , 51 — Rogowsky , B.
Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1 , 64 — Shipstead , Z. The mechanisms of working memory capacity: Primary memory, secondary memory, and attention control. Journal of Memory and Language , 72 , — Simons , D. St Clair-Thompson , H. Executive functions and achievements in school: Shifting, updating, inhibition, and working memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 59 4 , — Sternberg , R. What is intelligence? New York: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Intelligence and culture: How culture shapes what intelligence means, and the implications for a science of well-being.
The nature of intelligence
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences , , — Thomson , G. A hierarchy without a general factor. British Journal of Psychology, — , 8 3 , — Thorell , L. Training and transfer effects of executive functions in preschool children. Developmental Science , 12 1 , — World population ageing New York: United Nations. Unsworth , N. Working memory and fluid intelligence: Capacity, attention control, and secondary memory retrieval. Cognitive Psychology , 71 , 1 — Van der Linden , W. Computerized adaptive testing: Theory and practice.
New York : Kluwer Academic Publishers. Van der Maas , H.
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